Roos joined the League One side on a season-long deal in August but, with the 24-year-old having fallen out of favour at the Memorial Stadium, the Rams have exercised a clause in the agreement for his early return.
The Dutchman made 23 appearances in all competitions for Rovers, the last of which came in early December. Since then Will Puddy has been Rovers' preferred choice between the posts.
Roos, who joined Derby in January 2014 from non-league Nuneaton, has made five first-team appearances for the Rams and has had previous loan stints at Rotherham and AFC Wimbledon - whom he helped win promotion to League One last season via the play-offs.
25/1 Liverpool to beat West Ham with Betfair (new customer offer, max stake £1, all winnings paid in free bets, valid for 7 days, only deposits with cards/PayPal count, exchange and multiple bets excluded. T&C's apply).
Bore Draw Offer - get a refund on selected pre-match markets if any game finishes 0-0 with bet365.